The ku klux klan and reconstruction student worksheet dating, major features of the act
Congress passed several historic civil rights acts in an effort to remedy the limitations of the Thirteenth Amendment. Many states enacted "Black Codes.
More recently, a vast number of Supreme Court decisions relate to Section Section allows people to sue for state and local violations of the Constitution and federal law.
Ku-Klux: The Birth of the Klan during Reconstruction
One reason was that the Supreme Court gave an extremely narrow interpretation to the privileges and the ku klux klan and reconstruction student worksheet dating clause of the Fourteenth Amendment in the Slaughterhouse Cases The Court's decision in United States v.
Section 2 now codified at 42 U. The convention of the Realm was designated the Klorero  The president of the Realm remained the Grand Dragon; the other officers were collectively known as the Nine Hydras.
The two Nighthawks have been identified as couriers. The legislative response to this plea was the Civil Rights Act of April 20, Even worse, there was evidence that state officials were encouraging this vigilante action and were deliberately unresponsive to pleas they utilize law enforcement power to stop it.
Reconstruction: The Ku Klux Klan
Cruikshank ; Virginia v. In Nelson Mandela, released inwas elected president. The term was first used in the s and the practice of apartheid became law in when nonwhites were put under the domination of the white minority.
Empire — constituting the whole area of the Klan's activities.
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He told Congress the states would not and could not control the violence. Interestingly, the revisions resulted in the apparently inadvertent insertion of the words "and laws," which has resulted in a large expansion of the statute's coverage.
Realms were ruled by a Grand Dragon assisted by eight Hydras, as well as a Grand Exchequer and Grand Scribe, whose duties were identical to the above officers on the imperial level.
The various provisions of the Ku Klux Klan Act were not used frequently after their enactment. Congress then passed the Thirteenth Amendmentwhich abolished slavery and involuntary servitude and gave Congress the power to enforce its provisions.
Doubts as to the constitutional validity of this law led to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution in First the House, and then the Senate, passed the bill.
Lawsuits may be brought in federal or state court, and the remedies available for violations include damages and injunctive relief. In Bray, a group of plaintiffs who provided abortions or wished to use abortion clinics sought unsuccessfully to use section against members of Operation Rescue for their organization and coordination of demonstrations blocking access to abortion clinics.
Another viable, but rarely used provision, section 42 U.
In the FBI began to infil trate the Klan in order to suppress it and by member ship had dropped from 50, to 6, This interpretation is consistent with the statute's original goal of reaching Ku Klux Klan conspirators.
Since the Ku Klux Klan Act was designed to enforce the Fourteenth Amendment, the result was that there was not much left to enforce.
The Ku Klux Klan - Reading comprehension - ESL worksheet by missteacher
The House refused to concur, and legislators held a conference committee meeting. Courts have found that plaintiffs seeking to establish a violation of section must also establish a violation of Section As reports of lynching, mutilation, rape, and other violence by the Klan began to emerge, however, the group's broad, mainstream base was alienated.
Because the Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential order, Congress was concerned it might be overridden by subsequent legislation. Opponents argued that the provision would be unconstitutional because it was not limited to those acting under color of state law.
The section provides in part: It was known as the Ku Klux Klan Act because of that group's prominent participation in the violence.
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Its area of jurisdiction was a Klanton which was defined as "extend[ing] in all directions to a distance midway between the location of the Klan and the nearest Klan thereto" unless otherwise directed by the Grand Dragon or Imperial Wizard.
These attacks were the work of a number of white supremacy groups, the most notorious of which was the Ku Klux Klan.
The section is used less frequently than section 1, but is still a relevant and powerful piece of civil rights legislation. Section 5 provided that jurors in U.
The language of the statute is much the same as it was in Section provides a civil action for those injured by conspiracies formed to prevent an officer of the United States from performing official duties, to obstruct justice, or "for the purpose of depriving, either directly or indirectly, any person or class of persons of the equal protection of the laws, or of the equal privileges and immunities under the laws.
Although it applies to private individuals, the statute has a narrow scope because the Supreme Court has sought to ensure that it does not encompass ordinary civil wrongs or crimes.
In conclusion, though the Klu Klux Klan Act was a response to a unique threat to the exercise of constitutional rights, the act was drafted broadly enough that portions of it, particularly sectionare vital to modern enforcement of constitutional and federal statutory rights. Historians have traced the origins of the Klan to Pulaski, Tennessee, inbut the details behind the group's emergence have long remained shadowy.
Ku Klux Klan titles and vocabulary
One controversial amendment, known as the Sherman Amendment, sought to make cities and counties liable for violence occurring within their borders. They cover issues such as the conditions under which governmental entities can be held liable for acts of their various employees, immunities that can be asserted to preclude suits against particular officials, the requirements for awards of damages and injunctive relief, circumstances in which federal courts should abstain from deciding a Section claim, and more.
Some titles and jurisdictional designations were carried over from the Reconstruction prescripts intact, or slightly modified, and others were original with Imperial Wizard Simmons. The Strange Career of Jim Crow, 3d ed.
Reconstruction: The Ku Klux Klan
Education and public facilities were segregated, and social contact between the races was prohibited. It contained broader prohibitions against discrimination than those in the act.
Consequently, discriminatory laws affected not only African Americans but many other racial minorities. The Provincial convention was the Klonverse.